Exemplary Leadership Qualities of Mathematics Teacher Leaders
Keywords:Teacher leadership, Social learning, Role model, Mathematics education
In theorizing teacher leadership, little is known about the leadership qualities teachers are likely to learn or model within their community of practice. This descriptive qualitative study examined 12 graduate teacher candidates to describe the exemplary leadership qualities of mathematics teacher leaders. After thematic analysis, two categories of exemplary leadership qualities of mathematics teacher leaders were revealed: the leadership qualities they exhibit for students to imitate and the qualities they model from significant others in their community of practice. We conclude that exemplary leadership qualities are a function of role modeling and social learning. Implications for teacher leadership in mathematics education are discussed further in this paper.
G. A. Yukl, Leadership in organisations, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 2002.
A. Harris and D. Muijs, Improving schools through teacher leadership. New York: Open University Press, 2005.
S. A. A. Rahim, H. S. A. Hamid, N. Samsudin, and M. F. A. Ghani, “Teacher Leadership Models: A Directed Analysis of Content,” 2020, doi: 10.2991/assehr.k.200130.164.
A. N. Y. Mooi, G. Subramaniam, and L. Lin, “Teacher leadership within and outside the classroom,” in Mastering theories of educational leadership and management, D. Adams, Ed. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti of Malaya Press, 2018, p. 139.
B. A. Criswell, G. T. Rushton, D. Nachtigall, S. Staggs, M. Alemdar, and C. J. Cappelli, “Strengthening the vision: Examining the understanding of a framework for teacher leadership development by experienced science teachers,” Sci. Educ., vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 1265–1287, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1002/sce.21472.
M. K. A. Hj Ali Mashod et al., “The perceived ideal qualities of secondary school mathematics leaders,” J. Honai Math, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 15–28, Mar. 2022, doi: 10.30862/jhm.v5i1.249.
J. York-Barr and K. Duke, “What Do We Know About Teacher Leadership? Findings From Two Decades of Scholarship,” Rev. Educ. Res., vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 255–316, Sep. 2004, doi: 10.3102/00346543074003255.
J. A. Wenner and T. Campbell, “The Theoretical and Empirical Basis of Teacher Leadership,” Rev. Educ. Res., vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 134–171, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.3102/0034654316653478.
C. Danielson, Teacher Leadership That Strengthens Professional Practice. Minnesota: ASCD, 2006.
D. Muijs and A. Harris, “Teacher Leadership in (In)action,” Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 111–134, Jan. 2007, doi: 10.1177/1741143207071387.
P. S. Angelle and C. A. DeHart, “Comparison and Evaluation of Four Models of Teacher Leadership,” Res. Educ. Adm. Leadersh., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 85–119, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.30828/real/2016.1.4.
V. H. M. Tsang, H. N. F. M. M. Finti, Masitah, and Shahrill, “The leadership styles of secondary mathematics teachers in Brunei Darussalam,” in Proceedings of SOCIOINT14- International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities, 2014.
E. A. Braseth, “Principals’ Leadership of Mathematics Teachers’ Professional Development,” Front. Educ., vol. 6, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.3389/feduc.2021.697231.
M. Shahrill, “Exploring educational administration: The relationship between leadership and management,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 525–539, 2004.
J. Sebastian, E. Allensworth, and H. Huang, “The Role of Teacher Leadership in How Principals Influence Classroom Instruction and Student Learning,” Am. J. Educ., vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 69–108, Nov. 2016, doi: 10.1086/688169.
A. M. Green and A. M. Kent, “Developing Science and Mathematics Teacher Leaders through a Math, Science & Technology Initiative,” Prof. Educ., vol. 40, no. 1, 2016.
A. Eble and F. Hu, “Role Models , the Formation of Beliefs , and Girls ’ Math Ability : Evidence from Random Assignment of Students in Chinese Middle Schools,” 2017, [Online]. Available: https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:40915670.
P. S. Smith, M. L. Hayes, and K. M. Lyons, “The ecology of instructional teacher leadership,” J. Math. Behav., vol. 46, pp. 267–288, Jun. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jmathb.2016.12.005.
B. M. Bass, “Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries?,” Am. Psychol., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 130–139, Feb. 1997, doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.52.2.130.
N. J. Hiller, L. A. DeChurch, T. Murase, and D. Doty, “Searching for Outcomes of Leadership: A 25-Year Review,” J. Manage., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1137–1177, Jul. 2011, doi: 10.1177/0149206310393520.
S. Bolkan, A. K. Goodboy, and D. J. Griffin, “Teacher Leadership and Intellectual Stimulation: Improving Students’ Approaches to Studying through Intrinsic Motivation,” Commun. Res. Reports, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 337–346, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1080/08824096.2011.615958.
K. Cherry, “How to Lead: 6 Leadership Styles and Frameworks,” 2023. https://www.verywellmind.com/leadership-styles-2795312 (accessed Sep. 03, 2023).
C. Schott, H. van Roekel, and L. G. Tummers, “Teacher leadership: A systematic review, methodological quality assessment and conceptual framework,” Educ. Res. Rev., vol. 31, p. 100352, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100352.
R. Callingham et al., “Nothing left to chance: characteristics of schools successful in mathematics. (Report of the building an evidence base for best practice in mathematics education project),” 2017. [Online]. Available: https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:217062203.
P. Jääskelä, P. Häkkinen, and H. Rasku-Puttonen, “Teacher Beliefs Regarding Learning, Pedagogy, and the Use of Technology in Higher Education,” J. Res. Technol. Educ., vol. 49, no. 3–4, pp. 198–211, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.1080/15391523.2017.1343691.
H. C. Hill, D. L. Ball, and S. G. Schilling, “Unpacking pedagogical content knowledge: Conceptualizing and measuring teachers’ topic-specific knowledge of students.,” J. Res. Math. Educ., vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 372–400, 2008.
J. H. Stronge, Qualities of effective teachers, 2nd ed. Minnesota: ASCD, 2007.
D. Asamoah, M. Shahrill, and S. N. Abdul Latif, “A Review of Formative Assessment Techniques in Higher Education During COVID-19,” Qual. Rep., 2022, doi: 10.46743/2160-3715/2022.5145.
D. Baidoo-Anu, D. Asamoah, and A. Adusei, “Teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards students’ self assessment: A latent profile analysis,” Int. J. Educ. Res. Open, vol. 5, p. 100275, Dec. 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.ijedro.2023.100275.
L. Darling-Hammond and M. W. McLaughlin, “Policies That Support Professional Development in an Era of Reform,” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 81–92, Mar. 2011, doi: 10.1177/003172171109200622.
C. Harrison and J. Killion, “Ten roles for teacher leaders,” Educ. Leadersh., vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 74–77, 2007.
S. Sinha and D. L. Hanuscin, “Development of teacher leadership identity: A multiple case study,” Teach. Teach. Educ., vol. 63, pp. 356–371, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2017.01.004.
C. Gilles, Y. Wang, J. Fish, and J. Stegall, “‘I learned by watching my mentor.’ Nurturing teacher leadership with an induction program,” Mentor. Tutoring Partnersh. Learn., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 455–475, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1080/13611267.2018.1530174.
M. E. Brown, L. K. Treviño, and D. A. Harrison, “Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing,” Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 117–134, Jul. 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.03.002.
L. S. Nadelson, L. Booher, and M. Turley, “Leaders in the Classroom: Using Teaching as a Context for Measuring Leader Identity,” Front. Educ., vol. 5, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.3389/feduc.2020.525630.
J. C. Fairman and S. V. Mackenzie, “How teacher leaders influence others and understand their leadership,” Int. J. Leadersh. Educ., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 61–87, Jan. 2015, doi: 10.1080/13603124.2014.904002.
A. Lumpkin, H. Claxton, and A. Wilson, “Key Characteristics of Teacher Leaders in Schools,” Adm. Issues J. Educ. Pract. Res., 2014, doi: 10.5929/2014.4.2.8.
S. A. Azer, “The Qualities of a Good Teacher: How can they be Acquired and Sustained?,” J. R. Soc. Med., vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 67–69, Feb. 2005, doi: 10.1177/014107680509800211.
S. M. Wright and J. A. Carrese, “Excellence in role modelling: insight and perspectives from the pros.,” C. Can. Med. Assoc. J. = J. l’Association medicale Can., vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 638–643, Sep. 2002.
M. N. Cosenza, “Defining teacher leadership: Affirming the teacher leader model standards,” Issues Teach. Educ., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 79–99, 2015.
E. Wenger, Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
A. Bandura, “Human agency in social cognitive theory.,” Am. Psychol., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1175–1184, 1989, doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175.
R. Wood and A. Bandura, “Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making.,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 407–415, 1989, doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067.
G. Byun and S. Lee, “Social Learning in Empowering Leadership: A Moderated Mediation Analysis,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 18, p. 10137, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.3390/su131810137.
D. M. Mayer, M. Kuenzi, R. Greenbaum, M. Bardes, and R. (Bombie) Salvador, “How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model,” Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1–13, Jan. 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2008.04.002.
J. M. Schaubroeck et al., “Embedding Ethical Leadership within and across Organization Levels,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1053–1078, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0064.
P. M. A. R. P. Johari and M. Shahrill, “The common errors in the learning of the simultaneous equations,” Infin. J., vol. 9, no. 2, p. 263, Sep. 2020, doi: 10.22460/infinity.v9i2.p263-274.
W. W. N. Chong, M. Shahrill, D. Asamoah, and S. N. A. Latif, “Non-digital card game and year 8 students’ performance in integers,” J. Math. Sci. Teach., vol. 2, no. 1, p. em007, Mar. 2022, doi: 10.29333/mathsciteacher/11928.
R. Shahrill, Masitah; Ai Len Gan; Mohammad, Haryani Haji; Jawawi, “Intentions of shadow education in mathematics: Insights of secondary school students in Brunei Darussalam,” Didact. Math., vol. 44, pp. 81–105, 2002.
N. A. Tapa, H., Shahrill, M., Tan, A., Mundia, L., & Abdullah, “Determining the relationship and influencing factors of high school students’ performances and achievements in mathematics,” Turkish Online J. Educ. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1 (Special Issue for INTE), pp. 792–801, 2017.
D. Asamoah, “Perceived causes of low academic performance of senior high school students in core mathematics in the Kumasi Metropolis,” University of Cape Coast, 2018.
N. H. Abdul Kani, H. N. Hj Mohd Nor, M. Shahrill, and R. H. A. Halim, “Investigating the Leadership Practices among Mathematics Teachers: The Immersion Programme,” Int. J. Contemp. Educ. Res., vol. 1, no. 2 SE-Articles, pp. 113–121, Oct. 2022, [Online]. Available: https://ijcer.net/index.php/pub/article/view/21.
N. M. H. Morsidi, K. J. Sian, M. Shahrill, and N. A. Abdullah, “Cultivating Leadership into Secondary Mathematics Classrooms: Putting Belief into Practice,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 186, pp. 248–256, May 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.166.
M. Shahrill, N. Noorashid, and C. Keasberry, “COVID-19: Educational Practices and Responses in Brunei Darussalam,” in Globalisation, Education, and Reform in Brunei Darussalam, 2021, pp. 325–354.
J. W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2009.
M. Allen, “Survey: Open-Ended Questions,” in The SAGE Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods, California: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2017.
S. Doyle, “Member Checking With Older Women: A Framework for Negotiating Meaning,” Health Care Women Int., vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 888–908, Nov. 2007, doi: 10.1080/07399330701615325.
V. Braun and V. Clarke, “Thematic analysis.,” in APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 2: Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological., Washington: American Psychological Association, 2012, pp. 57–71.
C. M. Neumerski, “Rethinking Instructional Leadership, a Review,” Educ. Adm. Q., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 310–347, Apr. 2013, doi: 10.1177/0013161X12456700.
W. Lin, M. Lee, and G. Riordan, “The Role of Teacher Leadership in Professional Learning Community (PLC) in International Baccalaureate (IB) Schools: A Social Network Approach,” Peabody J. Educ., vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 534–550, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1080/0161956X.2018.1515833.
F. Quansah, V. R. Ankoma-Sey, and D. B. Asamoah, “The gap between the academia and industry: Perspectives of university graduates in Ghana,” Int. J. Educ. Res., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 63–72, 2019.
C. R. Boddy, “Sample size for qualitative research,” Qual. Mark. Res. An Int. J., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 426–432, Sep. 2016, doi: 10.1108/QMR-06-2016-0053.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Mathematics Instruction, Social Research and Opinion
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.